We can talk, criticize, worry, rebel, corruption is in full swing and is increasingly "sophisticated" making it increasingly difficult to combat. In his article, Kassim Hassani made a plea against the corruption of African leaders. Citing several examples on the continent, he rebels against the excessive silence surrounding acts of corruption. Corruption is a long chain that goes from top to bottom but one thing is certain, if the top (the state) is not effort, inertia will be deep and lasting.

At the 30th summit of the African Union in January 2018 in Addis Ababa, African leaders are assigned to the fight against corruption, one of the main challenges. However this proactive momentum, raises many questions because, if the majority of African leaders are against corruption, they are still likely to make use of every day. The steady increase in the number of leaders mired in corruption scandals prove that corruption is not only a failure of governance, but has become a way of governance. How to get out?

Exit Disclaimer
According to the Report on Governance in Africa published by the UN in 2016, corruption is one of the major obstacles to structural transformation of the continent. On the sixty states that make up the continent, only three (Botswana, Cape Verde, Mauritius) are detached from the family of corrupt countries, among which we find the laggard in Burundi, Angola, the Eritrea, Libya, Sudan, Somalia. Many studies point out that the lack of good governance, weak institutions, ineffective regulatory mechanisms, inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks and enforcement mechanisms are inoperative bed of corruption in Africa. It therefore appears urgent to get out of the disclaimer in which African leaders will enclose. Indeed,

In this area, it all starts with the will to give a good example. The vast majority of African leaders have come to power through electoral corruption, either because they were directly involved, or passive beneficiaries. However, electoral corruption is endemic in Africa. It promotes the rise of some virtuous leaders, including the connection with the business community is an established fact. These African leaders, carefree well-being, waging a war on petty corruption while reign omerta on state corruption. This situation is likely to distort the signal sent to people about what is acceptable or not in corruption. On the one hand,

These facts raise doubts about the sincerity of African presidents to initiate a real fight against corruption. The case known as ill-gotten gains involving several African presidential family has revived the need for African presidents to make a statement in due form their heritage at the entrance and exit of their presidential duties. This should also be the responsibility of everyone involved in the chain of state spending. Otherwise, this fight as launched by the AU tantamount to putting the cart before the horse.

The promotion of democracy involved the limitation of executive powers and the strengthening of the institutional and social control of the use of that power. It therefore requires structural reforms to strengthen the institutional balance. Several actions are possible: for example, opt for public office less bloated and better paid for poverty interested politicization of the administration, ensure public funding at a satisfactory level for political parties, build a protective and neutral state with weight levers against social, judicial, political and economic.

Opting for therapy by example
To counter corruption, we must definitely improve governance at the top. The heads of state are already set an example with transparent and traceable procedures in the management of public affairs, namely mining contracts or concessions with multinational. For example, Chadians still wonder today what has served the oil wealth in the time of fat cows. In Benin, serious doubts remain about the tender conditions of the port concession and Cotonou airport. In neighboring Niger, it is an eternal fog around uranium contracts. The case of South Africa with President Jacob Zuma is so overwhelming that it became recently the symbol of the corruption at the top of the state.

Si les chefs d’Etat de l’UA veulent réellement endiguer la corruption, ils doivent adopter la réédition des comptes, c’est à dire respecter les règles qu’ils ont eux-mêmes mises en place. Il s’agit avant tout d’éviter un combat sélectif et partial dans la lutte contre la corruption. L’une des clés du succès est de ne pas faire de la lutte un instrument d’oppression et d’intimidation des voix discordantes. Dès lors, la nécessité de se doter de lois et des dispositions qui tiennent compte des valeurs humaines, la démocratie et qui respectent chacun dans sa personne, ses droits, ses obligations et ses aspirations, pourra féconder la lutte en succès. Il s’agira surtout de renforcer l’indépendance du pouvoir judiciaire et de la crédibiliser par un système transparent.

If this therapy by example is essential to the fight, it does not ignore the issue of incentives. Corruption on the continent as a result of the perverse effects of Western policies, which basically seek only their own interests. Western governments have a moral duty to work to get out of this dubious cooperation by corruption. Conversely, they can freeze dubious assets, organize strict control of development aid, and reward the most virtuous leaders.

The positive environmental change will have a decisive impact on cultural attitudes of ordinary citizen, craftsman or beneficiary of petty corruption. If the heads of state had the merit of making the diagnosis, it is unlikely they establish effective control. The fight against corruption requires a change in attitudes from top to bottom. Thus it will cease to be seen as an peccadillo or cultural expression.

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